Chapter IV -- Results

General Findings
The results of the literature review present clear evidence that experts strongly urge the integration of business and design to form a design management curriculum in higher education. Thus hypothesis 1 is therefore supported.

Hypothesis 2 (H2) stated that higher education is not currently integrating design and management education. The evidence for supporting H2 would be provided if all (100%) the entries on the findings matrix (see , below) were found in quadrants 1 and 3 (design schools/design subjects; business schools/business subjects). Hypothesis 2 is generally supported by the appearance of 24 of 34 entries (70%) appearing in quadrants 1 and 3 (12 entries in each quadrant). However, ten entries (30%) in quadrants 2 and 4 indicate that some integration of design and management in higher education is taking place. Two entries appeared in quadrant 2 (business schools/design subjects) and eight entries in quadrant 4 (design schools/business subjects), indicating that design schools are addressing business issues much more aggressively than business schools approach design issues. The "marketing and technical sales" specialized minor at the Institute of Design accounts for half of the entries in quadrant 4 (design schools / business subjects). The apparent inequity between business schools and design schools regarding an integrated design management curriculum might be explained by the fact that design would not exist as an industry without business, but business has operated effectively in the past without relying heavily upon design.

Only Northwestern and Stanford demonstrated awareness of the value of design as a strategic marketing tool, although the level of their awareness appears to be marginal. Although it was reported in Chapter II that Harvard had implemented an industrial design case studies class in 1991, it was not substantiated by either the course offerings catalog or contact with the school (E. Twomey, personal communication, July 22, 1992). The Institute of Design appears to be leading design schools in developing awareness of marketing among its students by offering a "specialized minor" in marketing and technical sales that encompasses four out of the five areas of marketing studied. Art Center offered the only course in "design management," although it is a half-term class (R. Hill, personal communication, July 22, 1992) and no description of the course is provided in the catalog, indicating a lack of emphasis in this area.

Business Schools
In the business school category of the matrix Stanford and Northwestern demon­strate the only courses addressing design issues among the top business schools, with one entry each in quadrant 2 (design courses) under the subject category "design and product strategies." As anticipated, the business schools surveyed offer most of the core marketing courses listed in the bottom half of the matrix.

Harvard's (Harvard Business School, 1992) course descriptions implied coverage of several design topics. However, when contacted by telephone to verify the substance of the courses, it was found that design was not included in the subject matter (E. Twomey, personal communication, July 22, 1992).

Northwestern's (Kellogg Graduate School of Management, 1991) course descrip-
tions implied coverage of the topics:

  • Design and product strategies
  • Design policy making
  • Product requirements
  • and Elements of design work.

These topics were found primarily in two courses titled "Total quality management," and "Simultaneous engineering" (Kellogg Graduate School of Management, 1991, P. 42).

When contacted regarding the content of these courses, it was discovered that only ''Total quality management" addresses design issues. "Total quality management" is an elective for master's of management (MM) students and required for master's of manage­ment in manufacturing (MMM) students. Although it was found that this class considers design only in terms of its impact on quality improvement, and not for its strategic or esthetic value (S. D. Deshmukh, personal communication, July 22, 1992), design com­prises about ten percent of the class discussion, and therefore qualified for an entry on the matrix under the subject category "design and product strategy."

Of the business schools examined, Stanford appears to be making the greatest effort to develop students' awareness of the value of design in marketing. Two pieces of evidence lead to this conclusion: a class titled "Integrated design, manufacturing and marketability" and the existence of the Process of Change Laboratory, directed by Sara Little Turnbull. "Integrated design, manufacturing and marketability" is listed jointly in the catalogs of both the School of Business and the School of Engineering, and teams students from each school to develop, design, manufacture and market a product in a designated product category. The Process of Change Laboratory is concerned with explor­ing the "endemic influence of design in management education," and Sara Little Turnbull,
a well-known design expert, participates in instructing "Integrated design, manufacturing and marketability." Currently, she is working to introduce design students to the class (S.L. Turnbull, personal communication, July 22, 1992). This class seems similar to Clipson's (1990b) "First Things First" experiment at the University of Michigan, and qualifies for the "design and product strategy" category of the findings matrix.

Design Schools
As hypothesized, the design schools fared well in quadrant 1 (design schools / design subjects) of the findings matrix and better than expected in quadrant 4 (design schools/marketing subjects). Of the design schools studied, Art Center College appears to be doing the best overall job of providing design students with marketing education.

Art Center
Art Center (1990) requires "Marketing" and "Introduction to advertising" for graphic and packaging design and advertising majors. Both courses are also available to students in industrial design (which at Art Center encompasses the areas of transportation design, environmental design and product design) as electives. "Marketing" is a two unit class at Art Center and qualifies for an entry under the "principles of marketing" subject category in quadrant 4. The course is described: Gives students a better understanding of the marketing process. Exposure to target marketing, product positioning, development of creative strategy, sales promotion, and market research. In-depth exploration of advertising agency and design studio operations. Comparison of various media and their effectiveness. Introduction to market research as a creative tool. A variety of audiovisual material is used. (p. 142)

Art Center (1990) requires eighth-term transportation and product design students to take ''Design management;" however, it is a half-term class (R Hill, personal communication, July 22, 1992) and no description of the course is provided in the catalog (while a description of nearly every other class offered is included). When contacted regarding course content of "Design management," Ron Hill, chairman of the transportation design department at Art Center, stated that the course generally addresses the issues of design management as described in Chapter II of this study. Hill also said that while he is pleased that Art Center is doing more than some other schools in design management, he also noted that 'we could be doing a lot more' (R. Hill, personal communication, July 22, 1992).

Institute of Design
The Institute of Design at IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology, 1990) utilizes a core curriculum of design courses with professional specialization (majors) in communi­cations design, photography and product design. These professional specializations are supplemented by a specialized minor program, which includes, among approximately 60 other options, a specialization in "marketing and technical sales." The marketing and technical sales minor specialization includes courses in:

  • marketing;
  • buyer behavior;
  • marketing and selling for business markets, and two of the following;
  • market research;
  • product management and pricing policies;
  • and marketing channels and communication. (p. 276)

These courses give the Institute of Design four entries in quadrant 4 of the find-
ings matrix (design schools and business courses). Also of interest are specialized minors offered in "computer supported design," "design process," "environmental and human factors design," and "product design" that are available to students in majors other than design - business or engineering for example - to add to their curriculum. These specialized minors include various combinations of courses from the Institute of Design's course offerings. It is interesting to note that if IIT's business school were included in this study, it would have scored well in quadrant 2 of the findings matrix (business schools and design courses) for the availability of these minors.

Pratt Institute
At the undergraduate level Pratt (1991) offers, among many others, electives in "Introduction to advertising," "Introduction to marketing," qualifying for two entries in quadrant 4 of the findings matrix. Additionally, courses are offered in "Business law," "Fundamentals of accounting," "Introduction to management," "Financial management," "Labor relations," "Personnel administration," and "Introductory economics," in the social sciences and management department (p. 223). Students are typically required to take two of the electives offered in this area during their four-year program.

Graduate Design Programs
Although graduate design programs were not included in this study for reasons detailed in Chapter Ill, two schools - the Institute of Design and Pratt Institute - offer graduate programs that closely resemble the needs of the emerging design management field as outlined in Chapter II of this study. Pratt Institute (1991) offers a graduate course in "Design management" Design management is listed as a three-credit graduate course in "Communications I Packaging Design" and the description reads:

Course deals with management methods within large corporations, design consulting firms, advertising agencies, multi-media production companies, etc. Student receives a broad perspective of her/himself as a manager and employee within the context of the professional world. Guest lecturers include management experts from the world of business and design. (p. 132)

Within the same program Pratt (1991) offers courses in "Corporate image planning," "Marketing" and ''Ethics and business practice." Of particular interest is the course description for the three-credit "Corporate image planning":

"Corporate identity functions as a problem-solving model combining phases of information gathering, organization and analysis, strategy development, creative design, graphics systems development, and establishing applications standards into a coordinated program. Each student performs on a professionally realistic level selecting or given a client; fulfilling every role of a typical corporate identification "team" account manager, design director and marketing manager. Each corporate identification program includes every stage from initial client interviews through the last stages of a design control manual." (p. 132)

When queried as to whether undergraduates at Pratt have access to these graduate classes, a representative of the school stated that not only do undergraduates not have access to these classes (because the graduate school is separate from the undergraduate school), but that even if they did have access, they would have little time because of the demands of the undergraduate program (p. Lee, personal communication, July 22, 1992).

The Institute of Design (Illinois Institute of Technology, 1991) offers graduate courses leading to master of science in design (M.S.), master of design (M.Des.) and doctor of philosophy (PhD.) degrees. Without listing the course offerings of the entire department, a few of the courses most pertinent to this study are:

  • Principles and methods of design research;
  • Philosophical context of design research;
  • Design planning;
  • Design policy;
  • Communications planning;
  • Product planning; and
  • Strategic design planning. (pp.159-160)

Most importantly, the course descriptions for these and other courses offered in
this department stress the "relationship between an organization's design policy and its overall objectives and strategy" (Illinois Institute of Technology, 1991, p. 159). The Institute of Design does not offer summer classes, and representatives from the school were unavailable for comment at the time of this study (S. Smith, personal communication, July 22, 1992).